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Updated April 2023. *Indicates student; **Indicates postdoctoral fellow 

Phillips, C., *McVey, A., *Tian, J., Stephan, A., *Davis, W. B., Aflagah, E. L., &
Ross, L. A. (2023). Feasibility of a pilot dyadic randomized controlled trial testing the effects of three behavioral interventions on older adults’ cognitive, physical and everyday function. Frontiers in Aging, 4(1166338).

Overview: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) pilot examined the feasibility of testing the effects of three commercially available interventions on function-related outcomes in older adults.


Adams, M. A.†, Phillips, C. B.†, Patel, A., & Middel, A. (2022). Training computers to see the built environment related to physical activity: Detection of microscale walkability features using computer vision. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19(8), 4548; 

Overview: The study purpose was to train and validate a deep learning approach to detect microscale streetscape features related to pedestrian physical activity.


*Freed, S. A., †Sprague, B. N., & Ross, L. A. (2022). Does the association between objective and subjective memory vary by age among healthy older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. doi: 10.1080/13825585.2022.2143471 

Overview: The current study examined age-varying associations between subjective and objective memory in a cross-sectional sample of healthy older adults from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study. Time varying effects modeling (TVEM) was used to examine relationship magnitude fluctuations between subjective and objective memory across ages 65 to 85.

Nicholson, J. S., Hudak, E.M., Phillips, C.B., Chanti-Ketterl, M., O’Brien, J.L., Ross, L.A., Lister, J.J., Burke, J.R., Potter, G., Plassman, B., Woods, A.J., Krischer, J., & Edwards, J.D. (2022). The Preventing Alzheimer’s with Cognitive Training (PACT) randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 123, 10698. 

Overview: The Preventing Alzheimer's with Cognitive Training study (PACT) investigates a commercially available computerized cognitive training program targeting improved Useful Field of View Training (UFOVT) performance. The primary goal is to test the effectiveness of UFOVT to reduce incidence of clinically defined mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia with a secondary objective to examine if effects are moderated by plasma β-amyloid level or apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE e4) allele status.

Adams, M. A., Todd, M., Angadi, S. S., Hurley, J. C., Stecher, C., Berardi, V., Phillips, C. B., McEntee, M., Hovell, M. F., & Hooker, S. (2021). Adaptive goal setting and financial reinforcement to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity in insufficiently active overweight adults: A randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Overview: This trial tested the independent and joint effects of a mobile health system automating adaptive goal setting and immediate financial reinforcement for increasing daily walking among insufficiently active adults.

*Freed, S. A., *Sprague, B. N., *Stephan, A. T., *Doyle, C. E., *Tian, J., Phillips, C. B., & Ross, L. A. (2021). Feasibility and enjoyment of exercise video games in older adults. Frontiers in Public Health. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.751289.

Overview: A pilot study of older adults' experiences with an exercise video game on the Xbox Kinect reveals that the sample of older adults was motivated to do well on the games but reported mixed enjoyment of the games. Some older adults thought playing with a partner would make exergaming more fun, while others did not.

*Fausto, B. A., Adorno Maldonado, P. F., Ross, L. A., Lavallière, m., & Edwards, J. D. (2021). A systematic review and meta-analysis of older driver interventions. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 149(1), DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105852

Overview: Skill-specific and combined intervention approaches show improvement in on-road driving         performance and at-fault crash reduction. 

 *Sprague, B. N., †Phillips, C. B., & Ross, L. A. (2021). Cognitive training attenuates decline in physical function across 10 years. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences,76(6), 1114-1124. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbaa072

        Overview: This study examined thee effects of 3 different cognitive training programs on physical function across          a ten-year period. 


*Sprague, B. N., *Freed, S. A., Phillips, C. B., & Ross, L. A. (2020). A viewpoint on change point modeling for cognitive aging research: Moving from description to intervention and practice. Ageing Research Reviews, 58. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2019.101003.        

Overview: The authors propose the application of change point modeling for cognitive training studies.

Ross, L. A., *Sprague, B. N., **Phillips, C. B., O’Connor, M., & Dodson, J. (2018). The impact of three cognitive training interventions on older adults’ physical functioning across five years. Journal of Aging and Health, 30(3), 475-498.. DOI: 10.1177/0898264316682916. PMCID: PMC5453841

Overview: Older adults receiving speed of processing, memory, and reasoning training had significantly better physical functioning performance across five years.

Ross, L. A., Webb, C. E., *Whitaker, C., *Hicks, J. M., *Schmidt, E. L., *Samimy, S., Dennis, N. A., & Visscher, K. M. (2019). The effects of useful field of view training on brain activity and connectivity. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences, 74 (7), 1152-1162. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gby041. PMCID: PMC6941209

Overview: Ten hours of Useful Field of View training (UFOVt) was compared to ten hours of cognitively stimulating activities (CSA) and a no-contact control group. Resting-state functional connectivity between ROIs involved in executive function and visual attention was strengthened following UFOVt compared with CSA and no-contact controls.

Ross, L. A., *Freed, S. A., **Phillips, C. B., Edwards, & Ball, K. K. (2017). The impact of three cognitive training programs on driving cessation across ten years: A randomized controlled trial. The Gerontologist, 57(5), 838-846. DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnw143

Overview: Older adults at-risk for mobility declines were 49% less likely to cease driving after reasoning training and 55% less likely to quit driving subsequent to speed of processing training. Additional booster sessions for speed of processing training resulted in a 70% reduction of driving cessation. 

Ross, L. A., Edwards, J. D., O’Connor, M. L., Ball, K. K., Wadley, V. G., & Vance, D. E. (2016). The transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to older adults’ driving mobility across five years. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 71(1), 87-97. DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbv022. PMCID:PMC4701127.

Overview: Older adults at-risk for mobility declines who receive booster speed-of-processing training sessions maintain driving frequency and exposure across five years.


*Layfield S., *Burge W., Mitchell W., Ross L.A., *Denning C., Amthor F., Visscher K. (2014). The effect of speed of processing training on microsaccade amplitude. PLOS ONE, 9(9), 1-6. DOI: 10.137/journal.pone.0107808.

Overview: Speed of Processing training does not appear to result in changes in microsaccade amplitude, suggesting that the mechanism underlying Speed of Processing training is unlikely to rely on microsaccades.


*Burge, W., Ross, L. A., Amthor, F. R., Mitchell, W. G., Zotov, A., & Visscher, K. M. (2013). Processing speed training increases the efficiency of attentional resource allocation in young adults. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(684), 1-7. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00684. PMCID:PMC3799007.

Overview: Pupil diameter is a measure of cognitive effort. Younger adults who received speed of processing training used fewer cognitive resources (effort) after training.


Ball, K., Ross, L. A., Roth, D., & Edwards, J. (2013). Speed of Processing Training in the ACTIVE Study: Who Benefits? The Journal of Aging and Health, 25(8), 65S-84S. DOI:10.1177/0898264312470167. PMCID:PMC3947605.

Overview: Older adults who received speed of processing training significally improved on targeted cognitive measures across five years.


Ross, L. A., *Schmidt, E., & Ball, K. K. (2013). Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 61, 167-196. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2012.09.027. PMCID: PMC3633644

Overview: This is a systematic review examining the impact of cognitive training, educational interventions, exercise interventions, and mixed interventions in maintaining mobility (broadly defined). 


Vance, D. E., *Fazeli, P. L., Ross, L. A., Wadley, V., & Ball, K. (2012). Speed of processing training with middle-aged and older adults with HIV: A pilot study. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 23(6), 500-510. DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2012.01.005. PMCID: PMC3422374

Overview: Adults with HIV who received speed of processing training improved their cognitive (via UFOV) and timed instrumental activities of daily living.


Ball, K., Edwards, J. D., Ross, L. A., & McGwin, J., Jr. (2010). Cognitive training decreases risk of motor vehicle crash involvement among older drivers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58, 2107-2113. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03138.x. PMCID: PMC3057872

Overview:  Speed of processing training and reasoning training reduced at-fault state-reported crashes by approximately 50% among older drivers.


Edwards, J. D., Meyers, C., Ross, L. A., Roenker, D. L., Cissell, G. M., McLaughlin, A. M., & Ball, K. K. (2009). The longitudinal impact of cognitive speed of processing training on driving mobility. The Gerontologist, 49(4), 485-495. DOI:10.1093/geront/gnp042. PMCID: PMC2709540

Overview: Older adults at-risk for mobility difficulties who completed speed of processing training had maintained driving mobility and less driving difficuly across three years.


Ball, K., Edwards, J. D., & Ross, L. A. (2007). The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday functions. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B(Special Issue I), 19-31.

Overview: This article provides an overview of Speed of Processing training and investigates associated correlates of training effects. This training improved older adult's cognition (via UFOV) regardless of age and education.

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